Biological causes of schizophrenia essay

People with schizophrenia may be treated with first-generation or second-generation atypical antipsychotics. Second-generation medications are generally preferred by clinicians and patients because they have a lower risk of serious side effects. Anti-psychotic drugs are often very effective in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly hallucinations and delusions.

Often, lowering the dose or switching to a different medicine may reduce these side effects. The newer medicines, including olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone appear less likely to have this problem. Sometimes when people with the illness become depressed, other symptoms can appear to worsen. The symptoms may improve with the addition of an antidepressant medication.

Essay about The Causes of Schizophrenia -- Neurotransmitter Imbalance

Anti-psychotics are usually in pill or liquid form. Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as feeling agitated and having hallucinations, usually go away within days. Symptoms like delusions usually go away within a few weeks.

After about six weeks, many people will see a lot of improvement. Some people stop taking the medication because they feel better or they may feel they don't need it anymore. No one should stop taking an anti-psychotic medication without talking to his or her doctor. Antipsychotic drugs have many unwanted side effects. Side effects include drowsiness, restlessness, muscle spasms, dry mouth, tremor, blurred vision, rapid heartbeat, sun sensitivity, skin rashes or menstrual problems for women.

Atypical antipsychotic medications can cause major weight gain and changes in a person's metabolism. This may increase a person's risk of getting diabetes and high cholesterol. A person's weight, glucose levels, and lipid levels should be monitored regularly by a doctor while taking an atypical anti-psychotic medication. Typical anti-psychotic medications can cause side effects related to physical movement, such as rigidity, persistent muscle spasms, tremors, or restlessness.

Most side effects go away after a few days and often can be managed successfully by adjusting the dosage or by using other medications. One long-term side effect may pose a more serious problem. Tardive dyskinesia TD is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements most often affecting the mouth, lips, and tongue, and sometimes other parts of the body. TD is less common among those who use atypical anti-psychotics, but some people may still get TD.

People who think that they might have TD should check with their doctor before stopping their medication. Therapeutic treatments can help people with schizophrenia who are already stabilized on antipsychotic medication. Learning and using coping mechanisms to address these problems allows people with schizophrenia to socialize and attend school and work. Patients who receive regular treatment also are more likely to keep taking their medication, and they are less likely to have relapses or be hospitalized. A therapist can help patients better understand and adjust to living with schizophrenia.

The therapist can provide education about the disorder, common symptoms or problems patients may experience, and the importance of staying on medications. Illness Management Skills. People with schizophrenia can take an active role in managing their own illness. Once patients learn basic facts about schizophrenia and its treatment, they can make informed decisions about their care. If they know how to watch for the early warning signs of relapse and make a plan to respond, patients can learn to prevent relapses.

Patients can also use coping skills to deal with persistent symptoms. Substance use disorder is the most common co-occurring disorder in people with schizophrenia. Rehabilitation includes a wide array of non-medical interventions emphasizing social and vocational training to help patients and former patients overcome difficulties. Because schizophrenia usually develops in people during the critical career -forming years of life ages 18 to 35 , and because the disease makes normal thinking and functioning difficult, most patients do not receive training in the skills needed for a job.

What Is Schizophrenia?

Rehabilitation programs work well when they include both job training and specific therapy designed to improve cognitive or thinking skills. Programs may include vocational counseling , job training, problem-solving, money management skills, use of public transportation, and social skills training.

Programs like this help patients hold jobs, remember important details, and improve their functioning.


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Individual psychotherapy involves regularly scheduled talks between the patient and a mental health professional. The sessions may focus on current or past problems, experiences, thoughts, feelings, or relationships. A positive relationship with a therapist gives the patient a reliable source of information, sympathy, encouragement, and hope, all of which are essential for managing the disease.

The therapist can help patients better understand and adjust to living with schizophrenia by educating them about the causes, symptoms or problems they may be having. However, psychotherapy is not a substitute for anti-psychotic medication. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. CBT can help reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse. People with schizophrenia are often discharged from the hospital into the care of their family, so it is important that family members understand the difficulties associated with the illness.

With the help of a therapist, they can learn ways to minimize the person's chance of relapse by having an arsenal of coping strategies and problem-solving skills to support their ill relative. In this way, the family can help make sure their loved one sticks with treatment and stays on his or her medication.

Additionally, families should learn where to find outpatient and family services. Self-Help Groups. Self-help groups for people with schizophrenia and their families are becoming increasingly common.


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Although not led by a professional therapist, these groups may be therapeutic because members provide continuing mutual support as well as comfort in knowing that they are not alone. Self-help groups may also serve other important functions. Also, groups may be able to draw public attention to the discrimination many people with mental illnesses face.

Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. Symptoms The symptoms of schizophrenia are classified by the DSM-5 as positive and negative, each of which includes a suite of behaviors. Positive Symptoms Positive symptoms refer to the presence of psychotic behaviors not seen in healthy people.

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Biological factors in schizophrenia. Structural and functional aspects.

Positive symptoms include the following: Hallucinations such as hearing voices are common in schizophrenia. Other types of hallucinations include seeing people or objects that are not there, smelling odors that no one else detects, and feeling things like invisible fingers touching the body. People with schizophrenia can have delusions that seem bizarre, such as believing that neighbors can control their behavior with magnetic waves.

Biological, psychological, and sociocultural viewpoints have been developed in an attempt to explain schizophrenia. All three viewpoints point out various factors that may contribute to the development of the disorder. Biological theorists believe that individuals may have a genetic predisposition for the schizophrenia if a close family member has been diagnosed with the disorder. Stress during adolescent years seems to provoke the disorder among individuals who have a family history of the disorder.


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Although it is easy to recognize aggressive or withdrawn behaviors exhibited by students with EBD, it is difficult to identify the types and causes of their problems, especially. Abstract: Schizophrenia is one type of mental disorder. There are three types of symptoms like positive , negative and cognitive. It creates hallucinations, delusions and interacts to thought process of persons.

There are many factors which affect the schizophrenia like biological factors, psychological factors, sociocultural factors. Among them in biological factors, age and sex highly affected to Schizophrenia. The psychological. Once rebalanced, it was hypothesized the patient would no longer suffer from schizophrenia Tharyan, The insight into treating neurotransmitter imbalances in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia began the treatment path to present.

In psychotherapy, if we have deficits with our biology, then we fix the deficient, inhibit the unwanted response or excite the wanted response.

Causes of Schizophrenia

Whatever the behavior, it originates from nerve impulses traveling through neural circuits. Therefore, all behaviors. It is characterized by auditory hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized speech and thought process along with considerable social or occupational dysfunction.

Onset of symptoms is usually during early adulthood. It mainly affects the cognition but behavior. Biological Dysfunction as a Cause for Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterised by a number of both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are behaviours which are present although should be absent.