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Plot 6 was an unexpected rapid increase in the depth which was an outlier because it was outside the range of the other results. Page 35 of 59 At site 3 the cross sectional area was 0. The width of the river stayed the same as the previous site which was unexpected because the width was supposed to increase as you travel from source to mouth. At site 4 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth at plots were very close to each other, until there was a decrease in the depth at plot 6 until the river bank.

The width of the river increased by 1. Page 36 of 59 At site 5 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased and then decreased at plot 3, where the result was an outlier. The depth then increased until plot 5, where the water was at its deepest , and then decreased until the river bank. The width of the river decreased by 1.

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The depth increases until plot 3, until plot 4 where there is a decrease. The width increased by 1. Page 37 of 59 At site 7 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased until plot 5 and then it decreased. The depth was at its highest near the middle of the river at plot 5 which was 0. The width of the river had unexpectedly decreased by 0. The depth increases until plot 4 where it is 0. The width of the river increased from 2. Page 38 of 59 CSA base map Page 39 of 59 Width along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen to represent my data for width as a lateral bar chart because it is very easy to see the trends and where the river was at its narrowest and widest.

Bar graphs are used to track changes over each site. The width of the river starts to increase as we go from site1to site 4 by 2. At site 4 the river was very wide which was unexpected because the widest part of the river was supposed to be the nearest to the mouth. There was an unexpected drop of 1. The width then increased until site 7 where there was a slight decrease, and then there was a final increase at site 8.

Overall, we can see that the river increased in width from 0. Page 40 of 59 Gradient along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen a line graph to show the gradient of the river Holford because it is very easy to see if the gradient was increasing or decreasing. You can also see the rate at which the river is decreasing in gradient with this type of graph. A line graph was used instead of a bar chart because when smaller changes exist, line graphs are better to use than bar graphs.

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The gradient of the river starts to decrease rapidly as you go from site1 to site 2. Then the river starts to decline at a slower rate until site 4 where it is 0. After this, there was an unexpected increase in the gradient of the river until site 5. The river then decreased from site 5 to site 8.

Overall, there is a 0.

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Page 41 of 59 Formulae Sheet Page 42 of 59 Data Analysis Scatter graphs will be used to show the possibility of a positive correlationbetween two variables, such as width and the distance from the source. Simply looking at the line of best fit will tell us if there is a strong positive relationship, no relationship, or a negative relationship between the two variables. This technique tells us whether the correlation is really mathematically significant or if it could have been the result of chance alone.

Method of finding R2 1 State if there is a relationship between your two sets of readings. The answer will always be between 1.

Page 44 of 59 My hypotheses were: 1. Width will increase as you go from source to mouth. Depth will increase as you go from source to mouth. Gradient will decrease as you go from source to mouth Hypothesis 1: Width Scatter graph to show the change in width of the River Holford from source to mouth. It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the width increased as you went form sites This supports my hypothesis because the graph indicates that there is a correlationwhich is that, as the distance from the source increases, the width also increases.

Nearly all the widths, except sites 1 and 4, are near to the line of best fit and this shows us that the correlationis quite good. My r2 value is 0. Page 46 of 59 Significance Testing A further technique is now required to test the significance of the relationship. The r2value of 0. For our test this was 6 The result was then plotted on the significance table below in order to be assessed. If your reading is above 0. The plot of 0. From the significance test above my hypothesis is very likely to be wrong. Page 47 of 59 Possible Explanations for width results There are many possible explanations for why the width of the river followed the trend which can be seen in the graph.

The geology at the first three sites was Quartzite which is a hard, impermeable red metamorphic rock which means that water cannot percolate through it. This meant that we would not expect a large channel because the rock is resistant so is hard to be eroded and weathered away. The next three sites widths could have been affected because the geology was Marl, which is a soft, impermeable sedimentary rock. The geology at the last two sites was limestone which is a permeable sedimentary rock and is resistant to erosion.

Another explanation of why the width readings were not as the hypothesis had predicted was because of the gradient which is seen by the contour lines on the OS map on page 8. In the upper course of the river, we expected the river to have more potential energy which meant that the river was deeper rather than wider. As we progressed to the lower course of the river, we found that the river was wider because there was more lateral erosiontaking place, which meant the widening of the channel.

Where we were along the drainage basin could have changed the width of the river. An example of this is at site 3 where we were near a confluence. The river would have had more energy to erode the banks and therefore widen the river. At the first three sites there was dense forest to both sides of the river, which can be seen on the land use map on page 6. This meant that interception by this canopy layer could stop rain water from reaching the ground and therefore decreasing surface runoff.

Surface runoff is very quick and is the movement of water in any form from the atmosphere to the ground. This meant that the width of the river was expected to be very small in the forestedareas. On the other hand, the sites which were in open farm land were expected to have a wider channel because there would be little or no interception from trees and vegetation. Page 48 of 59 Hypothesis 2: Depth It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the depth increases as you go further out from the source and therefore supports my hypothesis. There is an overall positive correlationwhich can be seen in the graph which is that, as the distance from the source increases, the depth also increases.

However, some of the depths, such as at sites 1 and 2 were not near the line of best fit which could weaken the correlation. However, we could have compared our data with the other groups completing the same study to see if they got mainly the same results as us, and this would improve the reliability of the sample. Page 51 of 59 Possible Explanations for depth results One reason why the depth increased at some sites and then decreased at others was because of gradient, which can be seen on page 8.

In the upper course of the river we expected the river to be deep because the gradient was steep and this meant that there would be vertical erosionwith more potential energy. At the later sources we expected more lateral erosion, so the river would not have been as deep. At some sites we were very near to confluences and this could have affected our results.

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This is because at a confluence the river has more energy and power to erode, resulting in a larger, deeper channel. We were undertaking this study in the autumn and so there were many rotting leaves around and inside the river. A result of this was that Humic acid was formed and dissolved the river bed and thus created deeper channels. This is an example of solution. Solution is an erosional process where acids in the river dissolve the banks and the bed which results in a deeper channel.

Sites 4, 5 and 6 would have been the most affected by this because the geology there was marl which is a soft rock composed of Calcium carbonate.

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Near the mouth of the River Holford, the Bristol Channel , we expected the river to be slightly shallower than at the previous sites because it was losing its energy and was depositing its load, sediment. The geology, which is seen on page 8 , at the first 3 sites was Quartzite which is a hard impermeable rock. This meant that we expected the river to be shallow at these first sites because the rock was too resistant. The geology at sites was Marl which is an impermeable, soft rock which meant that there would be more erosion taking place here.

The geology at the last two sites was Limestone which is a hard, permeable rock.

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Limestone is well jointed which means that the rock has vertical and horizontal bedding planes. This meant that groundwater flow would occur here, where the water moved underground through these pores and joints. This particular type of limestone was resistant to erosion so we expected the river to get narrower here. Site 4 was near an urban area, Holford , which meant that there was concrete and tarmac which formed impermeable surfaces.

This meant that there would be more overland flow here which is the movement of water in any form from the atmosphere to the ground.