Sales promotion research papers

A positive moderation was expected of the perceived attractiveness of the announced discount promotion on the intentions of behaviors. The results confirmed the hypothesis, indicating positive effects of impulsivity and hedonic perception by purchasing the discounted products, in addition to the negative link between the intention of purchasing discounted products and the perception of a financial risk.

The Affect Of Sales Promotion On Consumer Interest To Purchase In IKCO Automotive Company

The moderating effects were not confirmed. Final considerations conclude the work. No se confirmaron los efectos moderadores. Consideraciones finales concluyen el trabajo. However, before a consumer can take advantage of these online tools they must have at least some prior experience of using the Internet, with their level of experience or skill affecting how they browse online.

Past experience of using the Internet is known to be one of the key moderators of online behavior Frias et al. In this regard, Pedersen and Nysveen found that past experience of using the Internet had a direct influence on purchase intention. This leads us to two key questions: Will novice, moderate and expert Web users present a different, or a similar, response when exposed to the same online sales promotion?

And which type of online sales promotion is the most effective in each case? It is logical to assume, therefore, that the promotion will have a differential effect, depending on the level of risk perceived by the user. While the former help the consumer to maximize the utility, efficiency or value-for-money of their purchase, the latter provide intrinsic motivations such as fun, entertainment or self-esteem. Each type of sales promotion provides one or more of these benefits, although typically those that are monetary in nature or are based on price tend to deliver utilitarian benefits, while non-monetary promotions tend to provide hedonic benefits Chandon et al.

The literature covering traditional media finds that monetary incentives are the more appropriate of the two approaches when the objectives in question are conative in nature Park et al. At the same time, it is important to note that, in Spain, according to the study undertaken by IAB Spain price is one of the determining factors for Spanish consumers in purchasing an airline ticket.

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It is therefore possible that, in the case of this product category, sales promotions based on monetary incentives will be particularly effective at triggering purchases. If novice Internet users perceive a greater risk in acquiring a product online than their expert counterparts, they are likely to prefer those sales promotions they regard as a reduction in the loss that the purchase will entail, as their sense of risk will decline.

This confidence enables them to dispense with the need to reduce the level of risk. In light of this, the following hypotheses are put forward:. H1: Among users exposed to a monetary online sales promotion, the less experience they have of the Internet, the greater their purchase intention regarding airline tickets. H2: Among users exposed to a non-monetary online sales promotion, the greater their experience of the Internet, the greater their purchase intention regarding airline tickets.

To test the hypotheses, an experimental design was carried out based on observing the behavior of subjects and implementing a computer-assisted survey. The independent variable was online sales promotion type discount vs. Due to the particular choice of service airline ticket , it was decided that the fieldwork should be conducted in two different geographical areas. In both instances the decision was informed by the volume of air passengers registered, according to the annual report of Spanish airport management company AENA AENA, For the purposes of the fieldwork, the research team contracted the services of an external company specializing in market research by means of personal surveys.

Sales Promotion techniques Research Papers -

Each of the interviewers was briefed in advance on the objectives of the research and the associated tasks. They were also assigned gender and age quotas that they had to respect during the data capturing process, so as to guarantee the representativeness of the sample, in line with the Spanish Internet user profile bearing in mind that this medium has reached a penetration level of Once inside, they were assigned a work station with a computer connected to a website with one of the two experimental treatments that is, using one of two URLs , and they were invited to browse at leisure.

The experiment was designed to match as closely as possible a real-life browsing situation; hence participants were left to choose how they wanted to browse and which pages within the site they wanted to visit. While visiting the apparent El Mundo online newspaper, subjects were not aware that they were, in fact, browsing within an intranet.

All the subjects participated freely without any type of incentive or subsequent compensation. The display ad used was a layer banner that appeared in the upper right-hand corner of the screen and moved downwards in a straight line. Subjects were able to choose whether to simply close the banner or click on it. Eight minutes after the banner appeared, whether the user had decided to click on it or not, an online questionnaire automatically appeared. This included the measures described in sections 3. The majority used the Internet several times a day Brand selection and design of the promotional incentives.

For the brand, it was decided that a very well-known brand should be selected for the experiment, so as to avoid possible bias in the results arising from consumer risk-aversion.

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The brand finally chosen was Iberia, a major European airline. Once the monetary value had been established, the researchers selected incentives that they believed would be appealing to Internet users due to a good match with the benefits users seek, be these monetary in nature, or non-monetary and also in line with the service on offer. More specifically, a number of studies demonstrate that airline tickets and hotel accommodation are services that are typically purchased together IAB Spain, The researchers opted to use banners as the vehicle for conveying the promotional incentives to the experimental subjects and to place them on a news site.

On this basis, the site finally chosen for the present study was that of the Spanish daily newspaper El Mundo www. As it was not possible to apply the experimental treatments to the real website of the electronic newspaper in question, an I. The Web application consisted of two frames; on one of these the real-time El Mundo webpage was uploaded, and on the other, ostensibly identical, page the promotional treatment was applied.

One of the pre-requisites that authors emphasize as needing to be verified a priori is that the selected service should not be perceived as either totally hedonic or utilitarian. Bearing in mind the Benefit Congruency Framework proposed by Chandon et al.

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The aim here was to avoid the congruence between the service and the promotional incentive having any influence on the results Chandon et al. In accordance with the recommendations of Batra and Ahtola , the nature of the service was measured in terms of its utilitarian and hedonic dimensions. Authors believe that consumers purchase goods and services and exhibit consumption behaviors for two basic reasons: 1 consummatory affective hedonic gratification from sensory attributes ; and 2 instrumental, utilitarian reasons concerned with "expectations of consequences" of a means—ends variety, from functional and non-sensory attributes.

The scale proposed by Batra and Ahtola , and implemented by Chandon et al. This scale considers the items pertaining to the utilitarian component to be: 1. An index was determined by calculating the difference between the mean value of all utilitarian items and the mean of all hedonic items.

The Affect Of Sales Promotion On Consumer Interest To Purchase In IKCO Automotive Company

A negative index score means that the evaluation of the product is primarily hedonic, while if the index score is positive the product is qualified as utilitarian. The researchers took advantage of this same pre-test to ensure that the non-monetary sales promotion was indeed perceived to have a monetary value of approximately this amount, by using a One Sample t-test with a reference value of To measure buying behavior, purchase intention was used, on a Likert-type scale from 1—7, based on the statement: I intend to purchase an Iberia-branded product the next time I contract a flight.

To measure Web experience, a combination of different objective measures a priori variables was chosen. Firstly, subjects were asked a series of questions regarding the number of hours per week spent browsing the Web, the frequency of Internet use, and the type of online tools used. Secondly, immediately following the experiment, subjects were asked to find the answer to the following question: What is the diameter of a CD? They were allowed to use any online tools and resources they wished — search engines, websites, and so on — and were given a maximum of six minutes for the task a posteriori variable.

In line with the recommendations of Yun and Lee , the time in seconds that each individual took to find the correct response was taken as indicative of their level of skill in using the Internet. Meanwhile, as various studies have demonstrated that brand familiarity and promotion proneness can influence the results achieved by a sales promotion, the researchers decided to control these variables so as to ensure that there were no differences in the composition of the experimental groups.

Following the procedure applied by Nunes and Park , as in the pre-test, we carried out a One Sample t-test, the results showing that there were no differences in the perceived value of the two incentives t: The two groups of experimental subjects were distributed homogeneously both in terms of their composition and also their size monetary incentive, individuals; non-monetary incentive, individuals.

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Using the Kruskal-Wallis test it was also shown that there were no significant differences between the two groups as regards the key socio-demographic variables gender and age used in calculating the quotas p0. Prior to testing the hypotheses the researchers also checked that there were no differences between the two sample groups in terms of promotion-proneness and brand familiarity. The average promotion-proneness discount: 3.

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Therefore, there were not found to be any significant differences in terms ofl the average obtained by the two groups in relation to promotion-proneness and brand familiarity F-test, p0. Finally, we used a multidimensional technique to classify individuals according to their objective experience of using the Internet. Hence those who had started using this medium a relatively long time ago were considered experts for the purpose of the study, while those who had been using it for a shorter time were categorized as novices.

However, this approach could present a scenario in which some individuals, despite having spent many years using the Internet, had only acquired the skills necessary to consult their emails; or, conversely, individuals who, despite their lesser experience, were skilled enough to use file transfer systems, create their own Web pages, and so on.

Indeed Emmanouilides and Hammond concluded that time, expressed in years, correlates negatively to the number of times per month an individual uses the Internet. It was therefore important to capture Internet experience as a multidimensional phenomenon, explained by several variables. To achieve this we also carried out a hierarchical segmentation analysis using the measurements of experience a priori and a posteriori with a view to classifying the sample in terms of the true level of experience in using the Internet.

The independent variables were those specified as a priori measurements of Web experience. The segmentation algorithm used was Automatic Interaction Detection AID , which is considered appropriate for continuous dependent variables and nominal or ordinal independent variables.

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The analysis revealed three groups, namely: high level of experience In general there were no significant differences between the three segments p0.