University essay writing layout

Essays are usually written in a discursive style, bringing together ideas, evidence and arguments to address a specific problem or question. They follow a particular structure: you will set out your argument in the introduction, build and present your argument in the main body, and should end with your overall key message or argument in the conclusion. Essays take time to complete.

You will need to set aside time for the following stages of writing:. Take a look at our handy quick guide to essay writing PDF for useful tips and techniques for you to apply. You will find a number of great books on essay writing in the Laidlaw Library, Level 1, under Skills E The topic should gradually grow from one point to the next.

A paragraph in Harvard format has three parts:. One can use in-text citations. Citation for each fact is provided, if not it is considered plagiarism which is a serious offense. In-text citations for example from J. Rowling book published in page 45 would look like Rowling J. These quotes make the Harvard format essay easy to understand and comprehend as one read.

Harvard style uses a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial at size Fancy fonts are not allowed because the Harvard format is used in writing outstanding academic and research essays. This helps readers know what they are referring to read quickly through an essay written in the Harvard format. The conclusion of a Harvard format essay is vital and should be written with high accuracy understanding and mastery.

The first sentence of the conclusion is used to put emphasis on the thesis statement and remind the reader what the essay has proved showed or theorized.

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After the first sentence provides brief information of the main points that were discussed throughout the whole piece to encourage remembrance of the most important points that were discussed. It mainly involves a summary of the main points of the article in other words. The essay should then finish with an outstanding powerful message that leaves the reader still thinking minutes or hours after they have finished reading the article.

The conclusion is followed by the reference page which consists of the reference list and is placed in its page known as the reference page.

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The general format of a Harvard essay referencing is referenced as follows:. A person is defined as being obese when their Body Mass Index is greater than The literature on chocolate and obesity has clearly demonstrated that there are no specific correlations between the two variables Beckett, ; Lambert, This is typified by the findings of Mellor , who found that, over a period of eight weeks of eating 45 grams of chocolate per day, a group of adults demonstrated no significant weight increase. As Lambert notes, chocolate consumption alone is not likely to cause obesity, unless large amounts of other calorie dense foods are consumed and this calorie dense intake is greater than needed for bodily function, bearing in mind levels of activity.

Obesity and chocolate consumption seemingly have no proven correlations.

Yet, in this essay, many chocolate focused arguments have been presented, including the transient effect of chocolate on mood and the fact that it is as likely to create feelings of guilt as of well-being. The literature outlines the chemical properties of chocolate which could help explain some addictive type behaviour, particularly in regards to nervous tension in women, but there is also a strong research focus on chocolate as a sensory-based indulgence.


It can therefore be said that chocolate is not a healthy food, but can be enjoyed as part of a healthy and balanced diet and lifestyle. Word count: Check this with your lecturer if you are in any doubt. Abraham, G. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 34 11 , Ariefdjohan, M.

Chocolate and cardiovascular health: Is it too good to be true? Nutrition Reviews , 63 12 , Beckett, S.

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  6. The science of chocolate. Bruinsma, K. Chocolate: Food or drug?

    Structuring your assignment

    Journal of the American Dietetic Association , 99 10 , Hannum, S. Chocolate: A heart-healthy food? Show me the science! Nutrition Today , 37 3 , Lambert, J. Nutrition and health aspects of chocolate. Beckett Ed. London: Wiley Blackwell. Macht, M.

    Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple. Appetite , 46 3 , Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states. Appetite , 49 3 , Macdiarmid, J. British Journal of Clinical Psychology , 34 1 , Mellor, D. The effects of polyphenol rich chocolate on cardiovascular risk and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus Doctoral dissertation, University of Hull, UK. Parker, G. Mood state effects of chocolate. Journal of Affective Disorders , 92 2 , Scholey, A. Effects of chocolate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review. Nutrition reviews , 71 10 , Schramm, D.

    Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 73 1 , Steinberg, F. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Dietetic Association , 2 , This is very important in academic writing in western countries, and if you do not do this you might be accused of plagiarism, which is a serious offence at university.

    We gave some of the reasons for this before:. All the references in the text must appear in the reference list, and all the references in the list must also appear in the text. However, if you are doing a group work assignment and your lecturer has asked you to work together and submit the assignment jointly, that is not collusion.

    Collusion, like plagiarism, has an element of dishonesty in it. People who collude do so secretly, as they know that the lecturer would not be happy. Coordinates: The University of Adelaide. All University Sites.

    19 Best essay template images in | English writing, Academic writing, Essay writing

    Current Site. English for Uni. Open All. Look at these sample essay titles from A Economics and B Nutrition: In example B, answering the question fully involves looking closely at the directive word Discuss and analysing its exact meaning. In relation to Content words your focus is clear: chocolate! Some common directive words include: Analyse Look at something in depth, examining the details. Argue Give reasons for why you agree or disagree with something and show that you understand different points of view.

    Assess Compare different points and see if the argument or information is true or persuasive.

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    Compare Show the similarities between two sets of information or arguments. Contrast Show the differences between two sets of information or arguments. Criticise Evaluate an argument or a text to see if it is good.

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    Critique Evaluate an argument or a text to see if it is good. Define Explain the meaning of a word or a term, especially in the context of your essay. Describe Give details about something. Discuss Look at the different sides of an argument and say which is more convincing. Help your reader to understand more about something by giving relevant details. Evaluate Look at the strengths and weaknesses of the material and give your final opinion of it. Examine Look at the strengths and weaknesses of the material and give your final opinion of it. Explain Help your reader to understand more about something by giving relevant details.

    Illustrate Give examples to make something clearer.